The iCARE study is supported by the participation of a large team of international collaborators working in different regions and countries around the world.

The key to halting the rapid spread of COVID-19 is public adherence to behaviour-based prevention policies around the world. Policies have varied greatly between provinces and countries. This study would not be possible without the contributions of our collaborators working in different regions around the world.

View results and analyses

New from November: Adherence trends to key health measures for Summer 2021 (northern hemisphere)

New from October: Cumulative results and analyses from Surveys 1 through 10 (March 27 to June 30) on study demographics, participation rates, and to six key health behaviours (66,519 respondents, 175 countries).

Including new results about support for vaccination passports and vaccination intentions.

View the iCARE Data Access Guide

Learn more about how to obtain access to iCARE Study data and how to request statistical analyses by consulting our step-by-step Data Access Guide. Our goal is to encourage sharing and collaboration through a collegial and transparent process.

Read more about available iCARE data sets


View iCARE research presentations and publications

Learn more about presentations and publications stemming from the iCARE project’s research as produced by the iCARE team’s collaborators from around the world.

View iCARE’s policy bank

A number of different COVID-19 management policies have been implemented around the world. iCARE collaborators have helped us collect these policies to create a country policy bank.


Browse iCARE Study infographics

The iCARE Study has published a number of infographics to help share findings and analyses stemming from study data. These are available in different languages and can be made available in other languages on request.

We encourage the sharing of iCARE Study infographics on social media and other platforms, including news media and research forums.

View media coverage about the iCARE Study

The iCARE study has received a range of local, national and international media coverage. These news stories have helped raise awareness about the importance of researching and understanding population behaviours, particularly when it comes to informing policy and communication strategy. They have also helped promote participation in the survey.




The International Assessment of COVID-19-related Attitudes, Concerns, Responses and Impacts in Relation to Public Health Policies (iCARE) study: Can we optimise strategies to flatten the COVID-19 infection curve?

The iCARE study has been listed (ID #21680) among the COVID-19 Research Tools by the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) of the US National Institutes of Health as part of the NIH Public Health Emergency and Disaster Research Response (DR2).

Background: In the context of a highly contagious virus with no vaccine and no cure, the key to slowing the spread of COVID-19 and successfully transitioning through the phases of the pandemic and into ‘life after COVID’, is public adherence to the unprecedented and rapidly evolving behaviour-based public health policies being implemented around the world. However, adherence to public health policies involves making significant behaviour changes that may come with significant personal, social and economic costs, which may undermine their impact. Further, as we look towards deconfinement, people’s willingness to adhere to new government recommendations (e.g., re: school and store openings) will also be critical for transitioning through the phases of the pandemic and re-engaging the economy. Unfortunately, policies have varied greatly between provinces and countries, contributing to public uncertainty about government policy motives and confusion about which policies to follow. This too may contribute to sub-optimal policy impacts and outcomes. Several complex factors are likely to predict why people adhere (or not) to various public health measures. These factors can be summarized by two complementary behaviour prediction models: (1) The COM-B (Capability, Opportunity, Motivation-Behaviour) model; and the (2) The Health Beliefs Model, which together, provide a framework for understanding the psychological, behavioural, social, and environmental factors that predict behavior change and adaptation. In the context of this unprecedented health, social and economic crisis, where the global need for adherence to public health policies has never been greater, our understanding of the determinants of adherence at each phase of the infection curve in countries around the world is critical for effective policy planning and communication.

The iCARE Study is an ongoing, multi-wave international study of public awareness, attitudes, concerns and behavioural responses to public health policies implemented to reduce the spread of COVID-19, as well as the multidimensional impacts of the pandemic on people around the world. Our goal is to link behavioural survey data with policy, mobility and case data to provide behavioural science, data-driven recommendations to governments on how to optimize current policy strategies to reduce the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada and around the world.

The project aims to address the following research questions:

  1. What are the sociodemographic (e.g., age, sex, gender, ethnicity, parental status, employment/ student status, built environment, healthcare system factors), psychological (e.g., COVID-19 attitudes, beliefs and concerns), behavioural, physical/mental health, and economic determinants of adherence to major COVID-19 public health policies in general, and by country/province?
  2. What are the short and medium-term impacts of COVID-19, including physical and mental health, social, occupational, and economic outcomes, and do they vary as a function of key characteristics (e.g., age, sex/gender, ethnicity, healthcare worker status) in general and by country/province?

Using this data, we will determine (1) Which strategies, launched where, when, and for whom were most (and least) associated with adherence and most (and least) effective at reducing infection rates and mortality and minimizing impacts, in order to provide (2) data-driven recommendations to governments on how to optimize policy and communication strategies to improve policy adherence and health, economic, and quality of life outcomes.

Methods: This is an international multi-wave cross-sectional observational cohort study. Survey data will be collected in monthly waves from May-December 2020 using convenience snowball sampling (globally, 25-30K per wave, n=200-240K total) and parallel representative sampling (in targeted countries, n=1,500 per wave/country, n=81,000), generating data for 8 cohorts of participants that will be added to the first wave cohort launched on March 27, 2020. We have confirmed the collaboration of more than 150 international researchers from 40 countries and the survey is currently available in 36 languages. Survey data will be linked at the country/province-level with Oxford Government Policy Tracker data, Google Mobility data, and Johns Hopkins case/death/recovery data. The primary analyses will be general linear models accounting for time scale (i.e., the date of survey completion) using multilevel modelling software.

Relevance and impact: This study will provide high-quality, accelerated and real-time evidence to support COVID-19 policy strategy and communication in Canada and around the world. The study will leverage an existing online assessment platform, as well as the expertise and resources of 150 collaborators in 40 countries. Survey questions were chosen to enable harmonized data collection and analyses with similar international NIH and WHO studies. A unique strength of the study is the inclusion of low and middle-income countries in global and representative samples. This will help us understand what public health policies and strategies are working, where, and for whom, which can inform policy strategy and communication in real time to help mitigate the spread of COVID-19, and its physical/ mental health, social, economic and quality of life impacts, both locally and around the world.

The iCARE study has been approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the CIUSSS-NIM (Centre intégré universitaire de santé et de services sociaux du Nord-de-l’Île-de-Montréal): approval # 2020-2099 / 03-25-2020.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0

Last update: Mar 3, 2022

Vaccine Hesitancy

  • Kim Lavoie (Chair)
  • Jovana Stojanovic
  • Samir Gupta
  • Myriam Gagné
  • Keven Joyal-Desmarais
  • Sherri Sheinfeld Gorin
  • Paula Ribeiro
  • Brigitte Voisard
  • Michael Vallis
  • Kim Corace
  • Justin Presseau
  • Simon Bacon
  • Hannah Durand
  • Gilberto Lopez
  • Stefania Paduano
  • Mohsen Farhadloo
  • Abehaw Yohannes
  • Josh Rash
  • Mariantonia Lemos-Hoyos
  • Ala’s Aburub
  • Angelos Kassianos


  • Simon Bacon (Chair)
  • Urska Kosir
  • Jovana Stojanovic
  • Stefania Paduano
  • Abehaw Yohannes
  • Grace Wangge
  • Lisa Kakinami
  • Olivier Drouin
  • Mariantonia Lemos-Hoyos
  • Abebaw Yohannes
  • Catherine Herba
  • Nora Granan


  • Michele Okun (Chair)
  • Catherine Herba (Chair)
  • Eva Suarthana
  • Angela Alberga
  • Shajedur Rahman ShawonJoanne Enticott
  • Helena Teede

  • Stefania Paduano
  • Jacqueline Boyle
  • Tewodros Eshete
  • Kirubel Biruk
  • Linda Booij
  • Angelos Kassianos

Sampling Bias

  • Keven Joyal-Desmarais (Chair)
  • Jovana Stojanovic
  • Joanne Enticott
  • Hung Vo
  • Eric Kennedy
  • Vincent Gosselin Boucher
  • Urska Kosir
  • Kim Lavoie
  • Simon Bacon

Chronic Disease

  • Urska Kosir (Chair)
  • Jovana Stojanovic
  • Abebaw Yohannes
  • Kim Lavoie
  • Simon Bacon
  • Frédérique Deslauriers
  • Paula Riberio
  • Michael Vallis
  • Linda Carlson

Possible future subgroups (inactive)

  • Impacts of sex and gender on behaviours and concerns during COVID (Going FWD project)
  • COVID fatigue
  • Resilience during COVID
  • Factors associated with adherence to COVID-19 guidelines and coping
  • Psychological well-being during COVID
  • Mental health of essential workers during COVID
  • Mental health impact on health behaviours
  • What motivates individuals to follow policies
  • Effectiveness of COVID policies
  • COVID policies and how they impact behaviour

Contact the iCARE team for more information about these subgroups


If you have any questions about the study, please contact Dr. Kim Lavoie, PhD at covid19study@mbmc-cmcm.ca.